The Endo/Exo Writers Project

The Endo/Exo Writers Project analyzes the representation of poverty and social class in American and British long-form writing published between 1840 and 1940.


This research builds on a forthcoming monograph by Lennard Davis that describes different literary patterns based on the authors’ socio-economic background.

Explore the database

Drawing on available literary histories and bibliographies, we have compiled a database that collects metadata on Endo and Exo novels, autobiographies, and story collections.

Discover the authors

Endo writers portray the class to which they belong, whereas Exo authors describe the poor from the perspective of the middle class. Learn more about the authors in our corpus here.

Meet the Scholars

The Endo/Exo Writers project is a collaboration between the University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for Southern Studies at Sewanee, and Paderborn University in Germany.


If you are interested in learning more about the project, ways to incorporate the analysis into instruction, or curious about accessing further datasets, please reach out to us through the online form.